There was a time when Islam was at its peak. During that time many great scientists and scholars had made new discoveries and led the world in the new age of Science and Research. Some of the Great minds of Islamic Golden Age are discussed here.
1. Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham was the mathematician, astronomer and physicist in the tenth and eleventh century AD. He was born in 965 AD in Basra, Iraq and died in 1040 AD in Cairo, Egypt.
He discovers that the light rays travel in a straight line and when it passes through our eyes, we see objects.
He is the father of Modern Optics. He invented the Camera Obscura which you can easily put in your pocket.
Although, there were many scientists even before him but due to his experimental data and discoveries he made, he is considered by many to be The First True SCIENTIST.
2. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was the Mathematician, Geographer and Astronomer in the Islamic Golden Age. He died in 850 CE in Baghdad, Iraq.
He was one of the greatest minds of 9th century CE.
His approach to solve quadratic and linear equations results in the discovery of Algebra, that is why he was known as the Father of Algebra.
Most of you are familiar with the world Algorithm. This world can be traced back to the 9th century CE. He was indirectly involved in the creation of Algorithms.
Due to his contributions in astronomy, mathematics and geography, he was appointed as the head of The Library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
3. Abu Rayhan al-Biruni
Al-Biruni was an Iranian Scholar and Polymath during the Golden Age. He was born on September 5, 973 AD in Beruni, Uzbekistan and died on December 13, 1048, Ghazni, Afghanistan. His interests include a wide range of subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, geology and history.
He had not only studied science subjects, rather he was a well known philosopher, geologist, historian, geographer and theologian.
He moved to India where he learned Indian culture and languages. When he moved to India, he took his notes which were published in 1030 AD. His notes are considered as the most authentic notes in Medieval India.
He made many discoveries in the field of science such as finding directions and the movements of Sun and Moon.
4. Ismail al-Jazari
Ismail al-Jazari was an Arab Muslim Polymath, Scholar , Mechanical Engineer, Artist and Mathematician. He was born in 1136 AD in Cizre, Turkey and died in 1206 in Turkey.
He was best known for work in the field of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics where he invented the Automatic Gates for the first time, which were driven by hydro power.
His most prominent invention was crank and connecting rod. Through this technology, the heavy objects can be lifted easily. Later on this device had been accepted globally and it is still in use in many machines.
5. Mirza Muhammad Taraghay-Ulugh Beg
His real name was Mirza Muhammad Taraghay but he was commonly known as Ulugh Beg which means “Great Prince”.
He was born on March 22, 1394 in Soltaniyeh, Iran and died on October 27, 1449 Samarkand, Uzbekistan. He was a Timurid Sultan, Scientist, Astronomer and Mathematician.
He was the sultan of his time. But he was also known for his contributions on Science particularly in Astronomy.
He constructed the Remarkable Observatory in Samarkand, which was considered by many as one of the finest observatory in Islamic World.
6. Abu Ali Sina
He was born on August 22, 980 AD in Uzbekistan and died on June 22, 1037 AD in Hamedan, Iran. Abu Ali Sina also known as Avicenna in the west was a polymath, astronomer, thinker and writer and known as Father of Medicine.
He was the author of the book The Canon of Medicine. It was used both in Islamic World and Europe up to the 18th century.
He wrote another book named Kitab al-shifa (The book of Healing), He has made his contribution in many fields like medicine, study of stars and mathematics etc.
7. Jabir ibn Hayyan
He was born in 721 AD, in Tous, Iran and died in 813 AD, in Kufa, Iraq. He was the author of a number of books in Arabic called The Jabirian Corpus. This corpus had covered a wide range of topics such as astronomy, mathematics, alchemy, philosophy and medicine.
Some of the books in the Jabirian Corpus include:
Kitab al-Rahma al-Kabir (The Great Book of Mercy), Kutub al-Mi’a wa al-Ithna ‘Ashara (One Hundred and Twelve Books), Kitab al-Sabe’en (The Book of the Seventy).
He was the student of the 6th Imam, Jafar al-Sadiq. He made his discoveries in chemistry. He discovered hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, by distilling various salts with sulfuric acid.
Due to his contribution in the field of Chemistry, He is known as The Father of Chemistry.
This was the list of some of the great minds in Islamic Golden Age. It shows how Muslims scientists and scholars made their contribution in science and pave the way for the western scientists.
You can also read part 2 this article here or another article on How Sir Isaac Newton Influenced by Muslims Scientists.